The interaction and co-operation between Russia and CIS in the area of preventing emergency situations of technogenic and natural character
Nikolai Makhutov, Vladimir Zatsarinnyi
At present total losses due to natural and technogenic accidents and catastrophes both in Russia and in C.I.S.(Commonwealth of Independent States) member-countries are increasing and amount hundreds of billions of Roubles and tens of thousands of casualties.
This is confirmed by the following research data of the SAFETY Program of Russia (SAFETY Federal Research and Emergency Response Program): while the relative increase of natural calamities within the last years was not high (in 1,4 times), the coefficient of technogenic accidents and catastrophes during the last 6 years was growing in 6 times. Accordingly, the cumulative number of these accidents and catastrophes increased 3,5 times more than that of natural ones.
With this in view, risk-response measures for protecting the population, industrial sites and the environment within Russian and C.I.S. territory in emergency situations or in case of ecological danger, should be performed within the framework of agreed inter-state programs of co-operation in case of major hazards and catastrophes as well as in the field of ecological safety.
In Russia the practical realisation of this task in Russia is carried out within the National program "SAFETY" with a separate project with C.I.S. countries, and within the framework of an Agreement on interaction in the field of prediction and liquidation of consequences of natural and technogenic emergencies (January 1993) which was concluded by C.I.S. countries. In December 1994 a plan of joint fundamental and applied research in 1995-1997 has been agreed upon which is carried out within this Agreement. This plan has been approved at interstate level. The main co-ordinating body is the Inter-State Council on Emergencies with a Secretariat and Scientific Council and authorised representatives in C.I.S. member-countries,.
The main objective of this joint program is the co-ordination of efforts of all interested governmental and research organisations of C.I.S. member-countries (Academies of Science, ministries and committees on emergencies and civil defence, ministries on environmental protection, on science and technology policy, etc.). This relates to the development and adoption of a set of unified documents and regulations, research methods, systems and technical means on prediction, warning and quick-response measures, on emergencies and ecological catastrophes, whilst taking into account possible transboundary transfer.
Scientific problems of risk assessment and analysis are being considered and developed.
Mechanism of realisation of a unified program of fundamental and applied research of safety problems is shown in this paper, stages of work are characterised, and some results of the development and generalisation of first joint documents are considered.